Sekrup Tulang Antibakteri

Sekrup Tulang Antibakteri

14_fclamp3mm1

Lima mahasiswa Unair dari Jurusan Teknobiomedik Fakultas Sains dan Teknologi (FST) Universitas Airlangga berhasil membuat inovasi penelitian sekrup tulang antibakteri.

Penelitian yang berjudul Biodegradable Bone Screw Anti-Bakteri Berbasis Komposit Nano Hidroksiapatit Poly (1,8 Octadienol-Co- Citrate) ini mendapat dana hibah dari Dirjen Dikti.

Selama ini, penanganan kasus patah tulang dengan melakukan fiksasi internal tulang menggunakan sekrup dan plat berbasis logam, yakni platina dan stainstess steel.

Penggunaan kedua bahan ini dinilai memiliki beberapa kendala. Salah satunya, meskipun logam platina memiliki sifat mekanik yang baik, harganya relatif mahal. Sementara, penggunaan stainless steel dalam jangka waktu lama bisa menyebabkan korosi yang membahayakan tubuh.

Selain itu, metode ini dinilai kurang efektif karena sekrup dan plat yang digunakan harus diambil setelah tulang tersambung kembali. Pengambilan sekrup ini menyisakan lubang pada tulang dan biasanya menimbulkan masalah baru.

Ketua tim penelitian, Imroatus, menjelaskan, sekrup tersebut terbuat dari nanohidroksiapatit [Ca 10 (PO4) 6 (OH) 2 ] dan POC [Poly (1,8- octanediol-co- citrate)].

Material ini dipilih sebagai kandidat biodegradable bone screw karena POC memiliki sifat nontoksik, biokompatibel, biodegradable, sintesisnya relatif mudah, dan meningkatkan sifat mekanik.

Sedangkan nanohidroksiapatit berfungsi sebagai filler karena kompatibel terhadap jaringan tulang. Kemudian kitosan sebagai coating yang bersifat anti-bakteri melalui kelompok amino bermuatan positif yang mengikat muatan negatif membran bakteri.

Hasil dari karakterisari sekrup tulang ini memiliki kekerasan 1482,68 MPa, sehingga sudah di atas kekerasan tulang manusia yakni 150-664 MPa dan kekuatan tekan sebesar 8,14 MPa sesuai dengan kuat tekan tulang cancellous antara 2-12 MPa.

Melalui uji antibakteri, bahan kitosan sebagai coating ini ditemukan mampu menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri Staphylococcus aureus di sekitar luka. ”Keunggulan dari sekrup ini di antaranya, biodegradable karena setelah tulang terfiksasi, sekrup akan terdegradasi dalam sistem metabolisme tubuh, sehingga tidak perlu dilakukan pengambilan kembali,” jelasnya melalui siaran pers, Selasa (14/6).

Ia berharap, proposal PKM tersebut bisa lolos PIMNAS (Pekan Ilmiah Mahasiswa Nasional) ke-29 di IPB.

 

[Referensi: http://www.republika.co.id/berita/pendidikan/dunia-kampus/16/06/14/o8ra6q284-mahasiswa-unair-kembangkan-sekrup-tulang-antibakteri ]

Stainless Steel 316 Sheet&Roundbar

Dear valued customers,

Beyond-Steel menjual Stainless Steel 316 acerinox, Jindal, Heisei, Outokumpu import plat, sheet, roundbar dan chanel dengan ukuran dan ketebalan bervariasi. Untuk informasi stock dan harga silahkan hubungi kami:

Tel  : Contact
Fax : Contact
Mobile: Contact
E-mail: sales@beyond-steel.com

Grades 316

Stainless steel grades 316 and 316L are also known as types 1.4401 and 1.4404 respectively. Grade 316 is an austenitic grade second only to 304 in commercial importance. 316 stainless steel contains an addition of molybdenum that gives it improved corrosion resistance. This is particularly apparent for pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride environments. 316L, the low carbon version of 316 stainless steel, is immune to grain boundary carbide precipitation (sensitisation). This makes it suited to use in heavy gauge (over about 6mm) welded components.

For elevated temperature applications the high carbon variant, 316H stainless steel and the stabilised grade 316Ti stainless steel should be employed. The austenitic structure of 316 stainless steel gives excellent toughness, even at cryogenic temperatures.

Property data given in this document is typical for flat rolled products covered by ASTM A240/A240M. ASTM, EN or other standards may cover products. It is reasonable to expect specifications in these standards to be similar but not necessarily identical to those given in this datasheet.

Availability
Stainless steel 316 is available in Sheet, Bar, Wire, Rod, Strip, tube, pipe, and Channel.
Stainless steel SUS 316 Sheet
Stainless steel SUS 316 Plate
Stainless steel SUS 316 Rod
Stainless steel SUS 316 Tube
Stainless steel SUS 316 Pipe
Stainless steel SUS 316 Channel

Tecnical Data Stainless steel 316 Beyond-steel Indonesia

Chemical Composition (%)

C : 0.05 – 0.08
Si : <= 1.00
Mn : <= 2.00
Ni : 10.00 – 14.00
Cr : 16.00 – 18.00
Mo : 2.00 – 3.00

Mechanical Properties
Tensile Strength : 53 Kgf/MM2
Yield Strength (0.2%) : >= 21 Kgf/MM2
Elongation (%) : >= 40%
Hardness : <= 187 HB

Corrosion Resistance

SUS 316 grade has excellent corrosion resistance when exposed to a range of corrosive environments and media. It is usually regarded as “marine grade” stainless steel but is not resistant to warm sea water. Warm chloride environments can cause pitting and crevice corrosion. Grade 316 is also subject to stress corrosion cracking above around 60°C.

Heat Resistance
SUS316 has good resistance to oxidation in intermittent service to 870°C and in continuous service to 925°C. However, continuous use at 425-860°C is not recommended if corrosion resistance in water is required. In this instance 316L is recommended due to its resistance to carbide precipitation. Where high strength is required at temperatures above 500°C, grade 316H is recommended.

Fabrication

Fabrication of all stainless steels should be done only with tools dedicated to stainless steel materials. Tooling and work surfaces must be thoroughly cleaned before use. These precautions are necessary to avoid cross contamination of stainless steel by easily corroded metals that may discolour the surface of the fabricated product.

Cold Working

Grade 316 is readily brake or roll formed into a variety of parts. It is also suited to stamping, heading and drawing but post work annealing is recommended to relieve internal stresses. Cold working will increase both strength and hardness of 316 stainless steel.

Hot Working

All common hot working processes can be performed on 316 stainless steel. Hot working should be avoided below 927°C. The ideal temperature range for hot working is 1149-1260°C. Post-work annealing is recommended to ensure optimum corrosion resistance.

Heat Treatment
316 stainless steel cannot be hardened by heat treatment. Solution treatment or annealing can be done by rapid cooling after heating to 1010-1120°C.

Machinability
316 stainless steel has good machinability. Machining can be enhanced using the following rules:

  • Cutting edges must be kept sharp. Dull edges cause excess work hardening.
  • Cuts should be light but deep enough to prevent work hardening by riding on the surface of the material.
  • Chip breakers should be employed to assist in ensuring swarf remains clear of the work
  • Low thermal conductivity of austenitic alloys results in heat concentrating at the cutting edges. This means coolants and lubricants are necessary and must be used in large quantities.
Welding
Fusion welding performance for 316 stainless steel is excellent both with and without fillers. Recommended filler rods and electrodes for 316 and 316L are the same as the base metal, 316 and 316L respectively. Heavy welded sections may require post-weld annealing. Grade 316Ti may be used as an alternative to 316 in heavy section welds. Oxyacetylene welding has not been found to be successful for joining of 316 stainless steel.
Stainless Steel 316Ti
Another variation of 316 is available. This variation is 316Ti. Stainless steel grade 316Ti contains a small amount of titanium. Titanium content is typically only around 0.5%. The titanium atoms stabilise the structure of the 316 at temperatures over 800°C. This prevents carbide precipitation at the grain boundaries and protects the metal from corrosion. The main advantage of 316Ti is that it can be held at higher temperatures for a longer period without sensitisation Linkprecipitation) occurring. 316Ti retains physical and mechanical properties similar to standard grades of 316.

Plat Stainless steel 316 4’x8′ Weight table

Stainless Steel Size Berat (Kg)
Plate 316 1 mm x 4′ x 8′ 23.6 Kg
Plate 316 2 mm x 4′ x 8′ 47.2 Kg
Plate 316 3 mm x 4′ x 8′ 70.8 Kg
Plate 316 4 mm x 4′ x 8′ 94.4 Kg
Plate 316 5 mm x 4′ x 8′ 118 Kg
Plate 316 6 mm x 4′ x 8′ 141.6 Kg
Plate 316 8 mm x 4′ x 8′ 188.8 Kg
Plate 316 10 mm x 4′ x 8′ 236 Kg
Plate 316 12mm x 4′ x 8′ 283.2 Kg
Untuk berat stainless steel 316 dengan ketebalan diatas 12mm (>12mm) silahkan menghubungi sales team kami di: sales@beyond-steel.com

Applications

316 Stainless Steel is now typically used in:

  • Food processing equipment
  • Chemical and petrochemical equipment
  • Laboratory benches & equipment
  • Coastal architectural panelling
  • Coastal balustrading
  • Boat fittings
  • Chemical transportation containers
  • Heat exchangers
  • Mining screens
  • Nuts and bolts
  • Springs
  • Medical implants

Beyond-steel Indonesia, distributor 316 stainless steel indonesia jual 316 stainless steel, jual plat 316 stainless steel, jual 316 stainless steel sheet, jual 316 stainless steel batangan, jual 316 stainless steel round bar, jual 316 stainless steel plate, jual 316 stainless steel wire,ukuran 316 stainless steel,harga 316 stainless steel,diameter 316 stainless steel, plat 316 stainless steel,beli 316 stainless steel,distributor 316 stainless steel,tebal 316 stainless steel,berat 316 stainless steel,pabrik 316 stainless steel, stockist 316 stainless steel,grade 316 stainless steel, suplier 316 stainless steel,chemical composition 316 stainless steel, equivalent of 316 stainless steel, mechanical properties 316 stainless steel, physical properties 316 stainless steel, properties of 316 stainless steel, hrc 316 stainless steel,thickness 316 stainless steel, hardness 316 stainless steel melayani pengiriman seluruh indonesia

Related Stainless Steel:

Stainless Steel 310

Product : AISI 310
Kategori: Stainless Steel
Grades : Chromium-Nickel steel
Standard: Austenitic

Characteristic
AISI 310 is an Austenitic Standard grade Stainless Steel. It is commonly called AISI Type 310 Chromium-Nickel steel.

Stainless Steel 310 Technical Data

Chemical Composition: (%)

C Mn Si Cr Ni P S
0.25 2.00 1.50 24.0-26.0 19.0-22.0 0.045 0.03

Equivalent:
France: AFNOR Z 12 CNS 25.20
Germany: DIN 1.4841
Italy: UNI X 16 CrNiSi 25 20 , UNI X 22 CrNi 25 20
Japan: JIS SUS 310
United Kingdom: B.S. 310 S 24
United States: AMS 5694 , AMS 5695 , ASME SA182 , ASME SA213 , ASME SA249 , ASME SA312 , ASME SA358 , ASME SA403 , ASME SA409 , ASTM A167 , ASTM A182 , ASTM A213 , ASTM A249 , ASTM A276 , ASTM A312 , ASTM A314 , ASTM A358 , ASTM A403 , ASTM A409 , ASTM A473 , ASTM A511 , ASTM A580 , ASTM A632 , FED QQ-S-763 , FED QQ-S-766 , FED QQ-W-423 , FED STD-66 , MIL SPEC MIL-S-862 , SAE 30310 , SAE J405 (30310) , UNS S31000

Mechanical Properties
Density (×1000 kg/m3) 8
Poisson’s Ratio 0.27-0.30
Elastic Modulus (GPa) 200
Tensile Strength (Mpa) 515
Yield Strength (Mpa) 205
Elongation (%) 40
Reduction in Area (%) 50
Hardness (HRB) 95 (max)

Physical Properties
Thermal Expansion (10-6/ºC) 15.9
Thermal Conductivity (W/m-K) 14.2
Specific Heat (J/kg-K) 500
Electric Resistivity (10-9W-m) 780

Applications

  • Sinks and splashbacks
  • Saucepans
  • Cutlery and flatware
  • Architectural panelling
  • Sanitaryware and troughs
  • Tubing
  • Brewery, dairy, food and pharmaceutical production equipment

Product Stainless Steel:

Stainless Steel 304

Dear valued customers,

Beyond-Steel menjual Stainless Steel 304 acerinox,Jindal, Heisei, Outokumpu import plat, sheet, roundbar dan chanel dengan ukuran dan ketebalan bervariasi. Untuk informasi stock dan harga silahkan hubungi kami:

Tel  : +62-021-2986 1684

Fax : +62-021-2986 1684

Mobile: +62-0819 0804 5114

E-mail: sales@beyond-steel.com

Characteristic Grades 304

Stainless steel grade 304 is the most versatile and widely used stainless steel. It is still sometimes referred to by its old name 18/8 which is derived from the nominal composition of type 304 being 18% chromium and 8% nickel. Stainless steel types 1.4301 and 1.4307 are also known as grades 304 and 304L respectively.

Stainless steel 304 is an austenitic grade that can be severely deep drawn. This property has resulted in 304 being the dominant grade used in applications like sinks and saucepans.

Stainless steel 304L is the low carbon version of 304. It is used in heavy gauge components for improved weldability. Some products such as plate and pipe may be available as “dual certified” material that meets the criteria for both 304 and 304L. 304H, a high carbon content variant, is also available for use at high temperatures.

Property data given in this document is typical for flat rolled products covered by ASTM A240/A240M. ASTM, EN or other standards may cover products sold. It is reasonable to expect specifications in these standards to be similar but not necessarily identical to those given in this datasheet.

Availability

Stainless steel 304 is available in Sheet, Bar, Wire, Rod, Strip, tube, pipe, and Channel, For all stock availability contact Sales.

Stainless steel 304 Sheet

Stainless steel 304 Plate

Stainless steel 304 Rod

Stainless steel 304 Tube

Stainless steel 304 Pipe

Stainless steel 304 Channel

Stainless Steel 304 Technical Data

Chemical Composition (%)

C : 0.05 – 0.08

Si : <= 1.0

Mn: <= 2.00

Ni : 8.00 – 11.00

Cr : 18.00 – 20.00

Tensile Strength (0.2%) : >= 53 Kgf/MM2

Yield Strength : >= 21 Kgf/MM2

Elongation : >= 40%

Hardness (HB) : <= 187 HB

Corrosion Resistance

304 has excellent corrosion resistance in a wide variety of environments and when in contact with different corrosive media. Pitting and crevice corrosion can occur in environments containing chlorides. Stress corrosion cracking can occur at temperatures over 60°C.
 
Heat ResistanceJustify Full304 has good resistance to oxidation in intermittent service up to 870°C and in continuous service to 925°C. However, continuous use at 425-860°C is not recommended if corrosion resistance in water is required. In this instance 304L is recommended due to its resistance to carbide precipitation.Where high strength is required at temperatures above 500°C and up to 800°C, grade 304H is recommended. This material will retain aqueous corrosion resistance.
 
Fabrication

Fabrication of all stainless steels should be done only with tools dedicated to stainless steel materials. Tooling and work surfaces must be thoroughly cleaned before use.These precautions are necessary to avoid cross contamination of stainless steel by easily corroded metals that may discolour the surface of the fabricated product.

Cold Working

304 stainless steel readily work hardens. Fabrication methods involving cold working may require an intermediate annealing stage to alleviate work hardening and avoid tearing or cracking. At the completion of fabrication a full annealing operation should be employed to reduce internal stresses

Hot Working

Fabrication methods, like forging, that involve hot working should occur after uniform heating to 1149-1260°C. The fabricated components should then be rapidly cooled to ensure maximum corrosion resistance.

Heat Treatment

304 stainless steel cannot be hardened by heat treatment. Solution treatment or annealing can be done by rapid cooling after heating to 1010-1120°C.

Machinability

304 stainless steel has good machinability. Machining can be enhanced using the following rules:

  • Cutting edges must be kept sharp. Dull edges cause excess work hardening.
  • Cuts should be light but deep enough to prevent work hardening by riding on the surface of the material.
  • Chip breakers should be employed to assist in ensuring swarf remains clear of the work
  • Low thermal conductivity of austenitic alloys results in heat concentrating at the cutting edges. This means coolants and lubricants are necessary and must be used in large quantities.
Welding

Fusion welding performance for type 304 stainless steel is excellent both with and without fillers. Recommended filler rods and electrodes for stainless steel 304 is grade 308 stainless steel. For 304L the recommended filler is 308L. Heavy welded sections may require post-weld annealing. This step is not required for 304L. Grade 321 may be used if post-weld heat treatment is not possible.

 

Tabel Ukuran dan Berat Plat stainless steel 304 4’x8′ Beyond-steel Indonesia:

Stainless Steel Size  Berat (Kg)
Plate 304 1 mm x 4′ x 8′ 23.6 Kg
Plate 304 2 mm x 4′ x 8′ 47.2 Kg
Plate 304 3 mm x 4′ x 8′ 70.8 Kg
Plate 304 4 mm x 4′ x 8′ 94.4 Kg
Plate 304 5 mm x 4′ x 8′ 118 Kg
Plate 304 6 mm x 4′ x 8′ 141.6 Kg
Plate 304 8 mm x 4′ x 8′ 188.8 Kg
Plate 304 10 mm x 4′ x 8′ 236 Kg
Plate 304 12mm x 4′ x 8′ 283.2 Kg

Applications

304 stainless steel is typically used in:

  • Sinks and splashbacks
  • Saucepans
  • Cutlery and flatware
  • Architectural panelling
  • Sanitaryware and troughs
  • Tubing
  • Brewery, dairy, food and pharmaceutical production equipment
  • Springs, nuts, bolts and screws
  • Medical implants

Related Stainless Steel: